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(c 26, /3S 



Research and Development Laboratories 

of the 
Portland Cement Association 



RESEARCH DEPARTMENT 
Bulletin 53 



Permeability of 
Portland Cement Paste 



BY 

T. C. POWERS, L. E. COPELAND, J. C. HAYES 

and H. M. MANN 



April, 1955 
CHICAGO 



Authorized reprint of a copyrighted 

Journal of the American Concrete Institute 

18263 W. McNichoIs Rd., Detroit 19, Michigan 

November 1964, Pbocibdinos Vol, 61, p. tSS 



Title No. 51-14 



Permeability of Portland Cement Paste* 

By T. C. POWERS,! L E. COPELAND,* J. C. HAYESJ and H. M. MANN* 

SYNOPSIS 

Apparatus and methods for measuring the permeability of portland cement 
pastes are described. Test results are given showing the effects of curing, 
cement content, cement composition, and cement fineness. Also, data on 
some rocks are compared with data on hardened past 

INTRODUCTION 

This paper deals with experiments on the permeability to water of port- 
land cement paste. The relationship of the permeability of the paste to that 
of concrete as a whole is understood in a general way The paste is a con- 
tinuous body enveloping and isolating the individual aggregate particles. 
The over-all permeability is a function of the paste permeability, the per- 
meability of the aggregate particles, and the relative proportions of the two. 
Fissures under the aggregate particles formed during the period of bleeding, 
and cracks caused by volume-change restraint also play a part. The perme- 
ability of paste has also an important bearing on the vulnerability of concrete 
to frost action. It determines the relative ease with which the cement paste 
and the aggregate may become resaturated after drying, and it is a principal 
factor determining the destructiveness of freezing — once the paste becomes 
water-soaked. This latter subject has been treated extensively in other 
papers. 1,2 ' 3 Studies of paste permeability have thrown light on the question 
of hydrostatic pressure in the interior of dams. Along with other information 
they have helped to identify the "ultimate particles" against which hydraulic 
forces inside the concrete can develop. With these particles identified and 
their wettable areas measured, the order of magnitude of the area l 
for computing hydrostatic uplift forces within concrete dams could be 
established. 4 

EXPERIMENTAL METHODS 

The apparatus used for permeability measurements is shown schematically 
in Fig. 1, and its actual appearance in Fig. 2. Fig. 1 shows the system in 
which hydrostatic pressure is produced by standpipes of mercury, and it 
shows one of the four permeability cells attached to that system. 

*Heceived by the Institute Jan. 13, 1954. Title No 51-1 1 is a part of copyright bican 

CoNORSTi [nsttct ra, V. 26, No. 3, Nov. 1954, Proceeding* V. 51. Separate prints are availabl -each. 

Discussion (copies in triplicate should reach the Institute not later than N \ichols 

Road, Detroit 1 ( J, Mich. 

tMember American Concrete Institute, Manager, Basic Research. Portland < emenl igo, I1L 

tSenior Research Chemial and Assistant Research Phya rch Laboratory, Portland Ce- 

ment Assn., Chicago, 111. 

^Research Chemist, Zonolite Corp., Evanston. III. (formerly with 

285 



288 



JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CONCRETE INSTITUTE 



November 1954 



-Curing 






: 

- 



Companion Si 




Fig. 4 — RelaMve siie and position of test slices 
with respect to the original specimen 




■ Turned z: 



Procedure Z 
B 



density below which the density increases with distance from the top. These 
are the normal effects of sedimentation, as discussed in a previous publication. 5 
In a sample such as that shown in Fig g cut from the zone of constant 

density would be comparatively homogeneous and the specimens for perme- 
abilil \ould have the same composition as those used for auxiliary 

er, if the slices had been cut from the lower zone, the specimens 
would not be isotropic and the companion pieces would not be like the perme- 
ability pieces. 

The pattern shown in Fig. 5 does not represent all samples; the depth of 
the zone of constant density varies from paste to paste and in some i 

3ity varies continuously from top to bottom. Procedure 2, as 
1 in Fig. I [opted to reduce the difference between permeability 

samples and their companions. 

rk the auxiliary tests were made on the permeability sample 
npletion of the permeability test. The auxiliary tests referred to 
ly those required to determine the total water content 
>rable water content.* 1 Abo. the densities (specific gravities 
Leasured prior to determining the water content-. 
v - ^ }l ' ate, the pastes tend to develop vertical channels dur- 

ing the bleeding period. 5 Such channels probably do not become completely 
filled with hydration product-. The procedure described above did no' 
eliminate this fault. Although the channels were not visible, we believe 
they might have been present in specimens and might account 

what seems to be abnormally high coefficients of permeability. 

Earl > Jn Tllf ' M * investigations preheating of the cement was used to induce 



PERMEABILITY OF PORTLAND CEMENT PASTE 



289 



Fig. 5 — Total wafer and density Diagram of 
versus distance from top of Specimen 
specimen ^ 

Top 



weight of water 
wt. of original cement] 
0.50 a 55_ 0,50 




1.85 



1.90 1.95 

Density, g/cc 



2.00 



false set and thus to produce uniformity of density with depth in a molded 
specimen. Upon observing that this treatment also resulted in an inert 
permeability, the preheating was discontinued. With three exceptions the 
data in this pa"per were obtained entirely from investigations on specin 
prepared without preheating the cement. The exceptions are: (1) Table 2— 
Effect of Hydration; (2) Table 4— Effect of Cement Fineness; and (3) Table 
5 — Effect of Drying. We believe that each of these factors would have the 
-.tine influence, regardless of whether or not the cement had been preheal 

Method of measuring rate of flow 

In most tests the samples were placed in the permeability cells, subjected 
to a constant hydrostatic pressure of about 3 atmospheres, and kept under 
observation until a steady state of flow was closely approximated. Sometimes 
'lie (low rate would become practically constant within 8 or I days, but i 
the required period was as long as 4 weeks. During the period of observation 
the rate of flow was measured at least once a day by making r five 

readings. 

Calculation of coefficient of permeability 

The fundamental definition of the coefficient of permeability n 
stated as follows, using Muskat's development 7 and the nomenclat 
previous paper. 8 

i 



dq 



K; Si' 

7 x "/7 



(i) 



290 JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CONCRETE INSTITUTE November 1954 

where dq dt = rale of flow in cu cm per sec 

.4 = mean cross-sectional area of sample, sq cm 

?7 = viscosity of water at tlir temperature of the experiment 

A/' = pressure drop across specimen, dynes per sq cm 

L = thickness of sample, cm 

K 2 = coefficient of permeability, sq cm 

By this definition the coefficient of permeability is a property of the paste 
alone; theoretically, the same result would be obtained with different liquids 
by using their respective coefficients of viscosity 77. However, for flow of 
!■ through cement paste we have reason to believe that the coefficient 
of viscosity is not a constant. When water flows through channels as small 
as those in cement paste, the viscosity appears to be a function of the size 
of the channel. Therefore, for our present purpose, it is advantageous to 
he following definition of permeability coefficient: 

dq 1 A// 

rfT x -T = *'T < 2 > 

Here Ah = drop in hydraulic bend across specimen and A', Is in cm per sec 
It is related fco K- 2 as follow-: 
K 2 d/g 



K 



v* 
<lf = densii \ ol the fluid, g per cu cm 
g = acceleration due to gravity, cm pei sec per aec 
77, = effect! 

li thus embodies the properties of the solid and the liquid, whatever may 

be the manner and degree to which their properties may be altered by 

teal internet ion. When K, is calculated on the basis of 77, - 0.008S 

A'i = 1.15 X 10 5 A' 2 ... (3) 

ther Eq. (1) nor Eq. (2) applies exactly to flow through a truncated 
which is the shape of these tesl specimens. An exact equation for 

t,1( ' flow through a body SO -hnped cannot be obtained. We used Eq. (2) 
with A calculated from 

A « j W + h 

wh ^re 1 is the mean cross-sectional area and d, and r/, are the two end 
diameters of the truncated cone. 

Correction for osmotic pressure 

During an experiment different alkali concentrations develop in the different 

P arta uf t,ir permeability cell. The concentration on the high-pressure Bide 

becomes different from that on the low-pressure side and both these concen- 

ne may be different from the average concentration in the specimen. 

rin- gives rise to osmotic pressure. In recent work the permeability coefficient 

alculated from the net pressure. That is. for Eq. (2), 

aa = aa. h Ah., 

when &A applied hyrdaulic bead 

Ah, =- hydraulic head due to oamoau 



PERMEABILITY OF PORTLAND CEMENT PASTE 



291 



The head due to osmosis could be either positive or negative. 

Most of the data reported in this paper are not corrected for osmotic 
pressure. The indications are that corrections would be small in most cases 
— not over 10 percent. 

TEST RESULTS 
Permeability of fresh paste 

As shown by Steinour, 9 fresh paste has structure and can be treated as a 
porous solid even before the cement sets. Under the force of gravity, the 
particles in cement paste settle, the rate of settlement being proportional 
to the permeability of the mass. It can be shown that the coefficient of 
permeability is directly proportional to the rate of bleeding. For the 
materials used in these tests, the proportionality constant is 1/2.15. 

The permeabilities of fresh pastes as calculated from measured bleeding 
rates arc given in Table 1 for four different cements and one water-cement 
latm The bleeding rate data were published several years ago. 10 

These data indicate the order of magnitude of the permeabilities at a given 
water-cement ratio. The figures are to be compared later on with those 
for hardened paste. They show also that when the specific surfaces of the 
cements and the water-cement ratios of the pastes are equal, differences in 
permeability of fresh paste are not large, even though the cements differ 
considerably in chemical analysis. 

Permeability of hardened paste 

Effect <>f cement hydration — The chemical reactions between the constituents 
<>l portland cement and water pro- 
gressively replace the original cement 
minerals with hydration products, 
principally cement gel. The volume 
of the cement gel (including gel pores) 
produced by hydrating the cement is 
approximately 2.3 times the volume 
of the cement. Consequently, the gel 
not only replaces the original cement 
minerals but also tends to fill the 
originally water-filled space. Table 
2 shows the effects of these internal 
changes on the coefficient of permea- 
bility. The data pertain to a given 
paste at different stages of its hydra- 
tion. Notice that within a week the 
coefficient of permeability dropped to 
about one one-hundred-thousandth of 
its initial value. By the 24th day it 
had dropped to less than a millionth 

r\f its: initio! i-olno *Cement No 1 57 ~>4; specific surface = 1800 (Wag- 

oi us inunu \aiu< . ner) . w/c = 07 bj m 



TABLE 


1— PERMEABILITY OF FRESH 
PASTES 


Cement* 

V, 


Specific 
face 

(Wagner) 


W/C 
by weight 


K, X 10 , 
cm per sec 


15754 
15756 
15758 

15763 


1800 

1800 
1800 
1800 


0.5 
0.5 
0.5 
0.5 


56 
63 
51 
84 



♦See Table 3 for compositions. 

TABLE 2— REDUCTION OF PERMEA- 
BILITY BY CEMENT HYDRATION* 





Permeabilil coefficient 


Age 


K . cm I- 


in -1, 


2 X 10~* 


5 days 


4 X 10"* 


6 days 


1 x io-* 


8 days 


4 X 10" 9 


13 <l:i\ - 


5 X in 


24 days 


1 X 10" 10 


ultimate 


0.6 X 10~ 10 (calculated) 



292 



JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CONCRETE INSTITUTE 



November 1954 



TABLE 3— REDUCTION OF PERMEABILITY BY CEMENT HYDRATION 



Cement 
No. 


Specific surface 


If c 


Ki, en 


per sec 




Fresh 


Ultimate* 


15754 
15756 

15763 


1800 
1800 
1800 
1800 


0.5 
0.5 
0.5 
0.5 


5.6 X 10-* 
6.3 X 10-* 
5.1 X 10-* 
B 1 - LO- 


4,4 X 10-" 

5.2 X 10-' = 
5.7 X IO-12 

6.3 X KM* 





Computed potential compound compoe 



Cement 


CiS 


CjS 


( 1 


(\A¥ 


15754 
15756 

15758 
15763 


45.03 
18 51 

60.57 
28.33 


25.80 
27.90 
11.58 


13.34 
4 63 

_ 
■1 22 


6.69 
12 60 
7 76 
5 96 



♦Approximate, by calculation. 

Table 3 shows the total change in permeability for comparable pastes 
made with four different cements. The data in the fourth column are those 
given in Table 1. The fifth column gives approximately what the perme- 
abilities would be after all the cement in the paste had become hydrated. 

Effect of varying tht lent — The permeability of cement paste at 

a time when a given percentage of the cement has become hydrated is lower 
the higher the cement content of the paste. The relationship for a series of 
pastes in which about 93 percent of the cement was hydrated is given in Fig. 

Fig. 6B gives data for specimens prepared from the same cement as in 
Fig. 6A, but for the specimens in Fig. »*>B the cement had been treated in 
such a way as to induce false set. The cement was heated over night at 
105 C so as to reduce the gypsum to the hemihydrate. The two curves 
show that at a given water-cement ratio (and at approximately the same 



■ 





6 6 7 0-8 



Fig. 6— Relationships between coefficient of permeability and water-cement ratio for mature paste 



99 

■ 
























fAHi 



PHMftMUTr Of 






294 



JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CONCRETE INSTITUTE 



November 1954 



These data show that pastes having the same water-cement ratios are 
likely to have similar though not identical degrees of permeability after 
the cements have reached fairly advanced stages of hydration. The last 
three cements listed were all made from the same clinker and thus differed 
only in the degree of fineness. Even though the highest specific surf a 
nearly double the lowest, the coefficient of permeability of the finest is only 
about 25 percent less than that of the coarsest. 

The first cement listed, Xo. 15364, may be compared directly with No. 
I (sixth column). Here, although the degrees of hydration and the 
specific surfaces are considerably different, the coefficients of permeability 
dmost identical. 
The pastes made with cement Xo. 15622, a Type II composition, appear 
somewhat more permeable than those made from the other cements 
the difference may disappear at a later age, when the degrees of 
tion would be more nearly equal. In general, the data indicate that 
-ie made fron rsely ground cement may be just as impermeable 

irom a finer cement. 

ling All the data reported above arc from tests on specimens 

kepi wet continuously. To determine the effect of drying, two pairs of tests 

were made on the pastes that were partially dried after the curing period. 

- had been cured in the glass mold tor I ll days and the other for W 

stored in closed glass vessels as follows: 

^e— 208 «l humidity 

enl relative humidify 
Thir< i . , .,, relative humidify 

foi penneability tests at the end of the second drying 
two drying stages the specimens reached equilibrium 
f it humidity. In the third stage they returned to aboul 07 
on.* 

the moisture changes occurred gradually, and the 
differentia] shrinking or swelling were correspondingly 
Preliminai showed that drying a specimen rapidly by exposing 






\ humidity would crack it. 

TABLE 5— PERMEABILITY OF DRIED 
PASTES 




< ioefficient ol 

permeabilit \ 

x Hi 
< in |>. 



o no 



\-\ 

50 112 

iiij 



915 
1025 






or placing a dry specimen in water to 
resaturate it would produce stn 

high enough to destroy Ihe specimen 

The permeabilities and porosities of 
two samples of each paste .-ire given 
in Table 5. Three out of four speci- 
mens >how permeability coefficient* 
m the neighborhood of 1000 X 10"" 
em per sec. other tests on compara- 
ble specimen- (same porosities, same 

cement ,. hut not subjected to drying 

and resaturatinf coefficients 



, 



PERMEABILITY OF PORTLAND CEMENT PASTE 295 

TABLE 6— APPARENT EFFECT OF ALKALI CONTENT ON PERMEABILITY* 





Permeability K u cm per sec, at 




3 days 


7 days 


14 days 


Leached A 

B 

Not Leached A 
B 


24.2 X IO-12 
18.9 X IO-12 

13.5 X IO-12 
13.1 X 10" 12 


24.6 X 10" 12 
20.0 X IO-12 

15.5 X IO-12 
14.5 X 10-12 


23.8 X 10-i 2 
21.7 X 10-12 

19.3 X IO-12 

17.4 X 10-12 



♦Cement No. 15761 — XazO = 1.13 percent; K2O = 0.44 percent. 

close to 15 X TO" 12 . Thus, gradual drying to 79 percent relative humidity 
increased the coefficients of permeability about seventy-fold. 

It is likely that the effect of drying on the coefficient of permeability would 
be greater than that indicated above if the specimens had been dried to 
equilibrium with a lower humidity. Specimens dried to various degrees 
are available but have not yet been tested. 

From other data, we believe that the capillary space (as distinguished 
from gel pores) is in the form of isolated cavities, each cavity being surrounded 
by gel We believe that shrinkage produced by drying may rupture some 
of the webs of gel between capillary cavities and thus increase the perme- 
ability. We found no evidence microscopically of cracks in the specimens. 
Apparent effect of alkali content— Two sets of specimens from samples made 
with a high-alkali cement were prepared. One set was stored in limewater 
long enough to leach out most of its alkali, while the other set was kept in a 
saturated atmosphere. After the alkali had been removed from the one set, 
both sets were tested for permeability. The results are given in Table 6. 
The leached specimens showed little or no change in permeability coefficient 
between the 3rd and 14th days that they were under test, whereas the un- 
Leached specimens showed a nearly 50 percent increase in coefficient of 
permeability. This might seem to indicate that when alkali is present in a 
specimen it lowers its permeability and that as the alkali is removed the 
permeability is increased. However, the indications are that after 3 days 
under tesl the alkali concentration in the water on the low-pressure side of 
the specimen was lower than it was in the water on the high-pressure side. 
Consequently, osmotic pressure counter to the applied pressure existed and 
reduced the rate of flow. As time went on, flow of water and diffusion of 
alkali tended to equalize the concentrations and thus reduce the osmotic 
pressure. As a consequence, more of the applied pressure became effective 
and the permeability coefficient apparently increased. Thus, these data do 
not indicate whether or not the alkali content of cement has any effect on 
the permeability of the paste made with that cement, The indications are 
that whatever the effect may be, it is small. 
Comparison of hardened paste with rocks 

Data on the permeabilities of various rocks are given in the first four 
columns of Table 7. Conical test samples were cut from selected pieces of 



296 JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CONCRETE INSTITUTE November 1954 

TABLE 7— PERMEABILITY OF ROCKS COMPARED WITH THAT OF HARDENED PASTE 



Sample 
Xo. 


Densil \ 

g per cc 


; -Table 
water capant \ 
g per cc 
of sample 


cm per sec 


Mature paste of same 
permeability, W/C 


Evaporable 
water capacity, 




by weight 


gal. per sack 


g per cc 
of paste 


4 
6 
2 
3 
9 
11 

12 
5 

1 
8 
7 
10 


2.99 
2.70 
2 94 

2 6.", 
J 7 1 
2.78 

2.75 
2.60 
2.72 
2.69 
2.58 
2.60 


0.0057 
0.0082 
0.0065 
0.0018 
. 0046 
0.0180 

0.0310 
0.0140 
0.0510 
0.0073 
0.0430 
0.0052 


3.45 X 10-13 

9.20 X 10-13 
1.15 X IO-12 
1.26 X IO-12 
1.72 X 10-' = 
3.34 X IO-12 

8.05 X 10-n 
1.15 X lO-io 
2.30 X lO-i" 
7 48 X lO-'o 
] 72 X ICM 
2.18 X 10-« 


0.38 
0.41 
42 
0.42 
0.44 
0.48 

0.66 
0.68 
0.69 
0.70 
0.71 
0.71 


4.3 
4.6 
4.7 
4.7 
5.0 
5.4 

7.4 
7 .7 
7.8 
7 9 
8.0 
8.0 


0.30 

0.34 
0.35 
0.35 
0.36 

0.39 

0.510 
0.515 
0.522 
529 
0.531 
532 



^ 



1 



rock, tested for permeability, and then for total capacity for evaporable 

water. 

The data are divided into two groups: (1) Rocks showing a coefficient of 
permeability less than lO 11 cm per sec. The capacity for evaporable water 
of all but one of these was less than 1 percent. (2) Rocks having coefficients 
of permeability greater than 10" 11 cm per sec. In this group the capacities 
for evaporable water range from 0.5 to 5.0 percent. The fifth and sixth 
columns give the water-cement ratios of mature pastes that would have the 
same coefficients of permeability as the corresponding rock samples. The last 
column gives the capacities of the pastes for evaporable water. These com- 
parisons show that the rock having the lowest degree of permeability was 
comparable with a mature cement paste of W/C = 0.38 by weight (4.3 gal. 
of water per sack of cement). For the rock of highest permeability the water- 
cement ratio of a comparable paste is about 0.71 (8 gal. of water per sack of 
cemei 

Table 7A gives the source and description of the rock samples The 
samples probably represented the rocks having minimum permeabilities 
for they were selected pieces free from seams or visible imperfections. Data 
assembled by Ruettgers, Vidal, and Wing" indicate that when samples 
larger than ours were tested, permeability coefficients ranging several orders 
of magnitude higher than the highest shown in Table 7 were found 



sun file 
No. 



4 
6 
2 
3 

11 



1 

8 
7 
10 



Lot 



lS27s 
18393A 



18278 



18460 
L8462 

lsj(MI 



TABLE 7A— DESCRIPTION OF SAMPLES 



Source 



Eau Claire, Wis 
C. H Scholer 
Phillips \\ is 
Eau Claire, Wis. 
Thomaston, Me 
Elmhurst, III. 

Elmhurst. 111. 

' lure. Wis. 
Elgin, 111. 
Banteetlab I lam 
Raleigh County, \\ . Va 
Lithonia, Ga. 



Description 



Trap rock, dense, some crystal-boundary pores 

Marble, fine grained, dense 

Quartz diorite, coarselj crystalline, eryBtal-boundai 

Quartz-feldspar, fekite, verv dense 

Limestone, crystalline 

Limestone, crystalline; fine-grained marble 

Limestone, crystalline; fine-grained marble 
(juartzite, imperfectly cemented; sandstone 
Limestone, uniform, fairly dense, pure 
( rranite, gray 
Sandstone, porous 
(iranite 



PERMEABILITY OF PORTLAND CEMENT PASTE 297 

These data show that the pore size of a typical rock is much larger than 
the pore size of a comparable hardened cement paste. A rock having an 
evaporable water capacity of less than 0.005 g per cc may have a perme- 
ability coefficient equal to that of a paste having a water capacity of 0.35 g 
per cc. 

SUMMARY OF TEST RESULTS 

(1) The permeability coefficients of fresh paste, W/C = 0.5, range from 
5 X L0- fi to 8 X 10* 5 cm per sec for four cements having different chemical anal- 
yses but the same specific surface, 1800 Wagner. The permeability coefficient 
for W/C = 0.7 was 2 X 10" 4 for the same cement that gave 0.6 X 10" 4 at 
W/C = 0.5. 

(2) The permeability of mature, hardened paste is between 1 millionth 
and one 10-millionth of that of fresh paste. It ranges from 0.1 X 10" 12 to 
aboul 120 X 10- 12 cm per sec for water-cement ratios ranging from 0.3 to i 
by weight. 

(3) Mature, hardened pastes made with coarse-ground cements are no 
more permeable than those made with fine-ground cements when the pastes 
have equal total porosities. The indications are that they are slightly less 
permeable. However, the ultimate porosities of pastes made with coarse- 
ground cements are likely to be higher than those made with fine-ground 
cements if the initial water-cement ratios (corrected for bleeding) are equal. 

i li Pastes made with portland cements differing in chemical compositi i, 
have similar permeabilities when the initial water-cement ratios (corrected 
for bleeding) are equal and when equal fractions of the different cements 
have become hydrated. At a given age and given water-cement ratio, pasl 
made with cements that hydrate slowly will have higher coefficients of perme- 
ability than those made with cements that hydrate rapidly. 

The foregoing conclusions pertain to the permeabilities of pastes thai 
have never been allowed to dry. Drying increases the permeability. I oi 
the particular specimens reported here, drying at 79 percent relative humidity 
increased the permeability about seventy-fold. 

Samples of various rocks free from visible flaws had permeability 
coefficients ranging from 3 X 10" 13 to 2 X 10" 9 . This corresponds to the 
permeability coefficienl of mature, hardened paste having a water-cemenl 
ratio 0.38 by weight at the low extreme and 0.7 by weight at the high extreme 
(4.3 and 8.0 gal. per sack, respectively). 

ACKNOWLEDGMENT 

We are indebted to Dr. L. S. Brown for the descriptions of rock 
given in Table 7A and to George Verbeck for selecting and shaping the rock 
samples used for permeability tests. 

REFERENCES 
I. Powers, T. ('., "A Working Hypothesis For Further Studies of Frost Resifi 



298 JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CONCRETE INSTITUTE 



November 1954 



Concrete," Ml Journal, Feb. 1945, Proc. V. 41, pp. 245-272; Portland Cement Assn. Bulletin 
No. 5. 

2. Powers, T. C, "The Air Requirement of Frost-Resistant Concrete," Proceedings 
Highway Research Board, V. 29, 1949, p. 184; Portland Cement Assn. Bulletin Xo. 33 

3. Powers, T. C, and Helmuth, R. A., "Theory of Volume Changes in Hardened Portland 
Cement Paste During Freezing," Proceedings, Highway Research Board, V. 32 1953 p 285" 
Portland Cement Assn. Bulletin Xo. 46. 

4^ Powers, T. ('., "Hydrostatic Pressure in Concrete," submitted to American Society 
of Civil Engineers. 

5 Powers, T. C "The Bleeding of Portland Cement Paste, Mortar and Concrete, 
treated as a Special Case of Sedimentation," Portland Cement Assn. Bulletin No 2 1939 

6 Copeland, L. E., and Hayes, J. C, "Determination of Nonevaporahl,- Water in Hardened 
Portland Cement Paste," AST M Bulletin, Xo. 194, Dec. 1953, p. 70; Portland Cement \<sn 

Bulletin No. 47. 

7 Muskat, U Tht Flow of Homogeneous Fluids Through Porous Media, McGraw-Hill 
Book Co., New York, X. Y., 1937. 

8. Powers, T. C and Brownyard, T. L., "Studies of the Physical Properties of Hardened 
Portland Cement Paste. Part 7-Permeability and Absorptivity." ACI Jouhnal, Alar 

1 ' , " ' ' ^ 1:; - I' ^ Portland Cemenl \~,, Bulletin No. 22; Part 7 

9. Steinour, H H "Rate of Sedimentation: Suspensions of Uniform-Size Angular Parti- 
cles, Industrial & Engineering Chemistry, V. 36, Oct. 1944 p <,0l 

10. Steinour H H., "Further Studies of the Bleeding of Portland Cement Paste/' Portland 
Cement Assn., Bulletin Xo. 4, 1945. 

of\^r ttge ' S ; ' ' y"!: 1 K ; N " : ""' W£n& S - P " " An Investigation of ,1,, Permeability 
p C °" Cr ! e mth Par t«=ular Reference to Boulder Dam," ACI Joubnal, Mar.-Apr 
Proc. \. 31, pp. 3S2-41G. ' 



Bulletins Published by the 

Research Department 

Research and Development Division 

of the 

Portland Cement Association 



Bulletin l "Estimation of Phase Composition of Clinker in thi System ; « sO 
SiOx-2CaO-SiOt-3CaO \N>-4<a<> \l<> Fe*0 at Clinkering remper- 
*tur< i 

Reprinted from Rock 1 41 

\2 

Bulletin 2 • 1 he Bleeding of Portland ( emenl Paste, M >rtai snd< ncret 
as a Spei ial ( sse of Sedimentation,* 1 

:.; July, 19 

Bulletin .* "Rate of Sedimentation: I. Nonflocculated s 

Spheres; II. Suspensions ol Uniform-S ilai Particles; III. 

Concentrated Flocculated Suspensions <>f P< 

ited from Indiutr 

Bulletin 4 "Further Studies of the B rtland Cement Pas* 

H £ 

Bulk'tin 5 "A Working M>p..rh.-sis foi 

Reprinted from Journal of the America* 
41 . 

Bulletin 5A Supplement to Bulletin 5; I n of the paper 

pothesis f«T Further S ' Pros! Resist 

H W 

Reprinted from J " lber 

4! . . 

Bulletin I lt Dynsmi< resting of Pavements, 

41 



"Equations foi I omputing Elastfr I onstanti fr< m I U ral snd Tor- 
sional Resonant Frequencies ol Vibration of Prisma snd I 

Reprinte-. ' jteriaU. 45. 

discussior 

"FlexuraJ Vibration of I arestralned I rlinden snd Disks, 

Reprinted from Journal of Applied I IS, 

should Portland ( ement Be Dispersed?' 



Bull* t iti 



Bulletin 8 






nted from Journal of the American 

4. 



Bulletin 10 



'Interpretation of Phase Diagrams of S ms,' 

Reprinted from Journal of Physical Chrmv i( > 






1 vHL, 



Bulletin 11— "Shrinkage Stresses in Concrete: Part 1 — Shrinkage lor Swellings, 
Its Effect upon Displacements and Stresses in Slabs and Beams of 
Homogeneous, Isotropic, Elastic Material; Part 2 — Application of the 
Theory Presented in Part 1 to Experimental Results*'; by Gerald 
Pickett, March, 1946. 

Reprinted from Journal of the American Concrete Institute (January and February, 
1946); Proceedings, 42, 165, 361 (1946). 

Bulletin 12— "The Influence of Gypsum on the Hydration and Properties of Portland 
Cement Pastes," by William Lerch, March, 1946. 

Reprinted from Proceedings, American Society for Testing Materials, 46, 1251 (1946), 

Bulletin 13 — "Tests of Concretes Containing Air-Entraining Portland Cements or 
Air-Entraining Materials Added to Batch at Mixer," by H. F. Gonner- 
man, April, 1947. 

Reprinted from Journal of the American Concrete Institute (June, 1944); Proceedings, 
40, 477 (1944); also supplementary data and analysis, reprinted from Supplement 
i November, 1944); Proceedings, 40, 508-1 (1944). 

Bulletin 14 — "An Explanation of the Titration Values Obtained in the Merriman 
Sugar-Solubility Test for Portland Cement/' by William Lerch, 
March, 1947. 

Reprinted from ASTM Bulletin, No. 145, 62 (March, 1947). 

"The Camera Lucida Method for Measuring Air Voids in Hardened 

Concrete," by George J. Verbeck, May, 1947. 

Reprinted from Journal of the American Concrete Institute (Mav, 1947); Proceedings, 
43. 1 1 

"Development and Study of Apparatus and Methods for the Determina- 
tion of the Air Content of Fresh Concrete," by Carl A Menzel Mav 
1947. 

Reprinted from Journal of the American Concrete Institute (May, 1947); Proceedings, 
43, 1053 (1947). 

"The Problem of Proportioning Portland Cement Raw Mixtures: 

Part I— A General View of the Problem; Part II— Mathematical Study 

of the Problem; Part III— Application to Typical Processes; Part IV— 

Direct Control of Potential Composition"; by L. A. Dahl, June, 1947. 

Reprinted from Rock Products, 50, No. 1, 109; No. 2, 107; No. 3, 92; No. 4, 122 (1947). 

"The System CaO-Si02-H 2 and the Hydration of the Calcium Sili- 
cates," by Harold H. Steinour, June, 1947. 

Reprinted from Chemical Reviews, 40, 391 (1947). 

"Procedures for Determining the Air Content of Freshlv-Mixed Con- 
crete by the Rolling and Pressure Methods," by Carl A. Menzel 
June, 1947. 

Reprinted from Proceedings, American Society for Testing Materials, 47, 833 (1947). 

"The Effect of Change in Moisture-Content on the Creep of Concrete 
under a Sustained Load," by Gerald Pickett, July, 1947. 

Reprinted from Journal of the American Concrete Institute (February, 1942) ; Pro- 
ceedings, 38, 333 (1942). 



Bulletin 15- 



Bulletin 16- 



Bulletin 17— 



Bulletin 18- 



Bulletin 19- 



Bulletin 20— 



Bulletin 21— 



Bulletin 22— 



Bulletin 23- 



Bulletin 24 



Effect of Gypsum Content and Other Factors on Shrinkage of Concrete 
Prisms, by Gerald Pickett, October, 1947. 

Reprinted from Journal of the American Concrete Institute (October, 1947)- Pro- 
ceedings, 44, 149 (1948). 

'Studies of the Physical Properties of Hardened Portland Cement 
Paste, by T. C. I\>\\ ebs and T. L. Brownyabd, March, 1948. 

Reprinted from Journal of the American Concrete Institute (October-December 1946- 
January-April, 1947); Proceedings, 43, 101, 249, 469. 549. 669, 845, 933 (1947). 

"Effect of Carbon Black and Black Iron Oxide on Air Content and Dura- 
bility of Concrete," by Thomas G. Taylor, May, 1948. 

Reprinted from Journal of the American Concrete Institute (April, 1948); Proceedings, 

"Effect of Entrained Air on Concretes Made with So-Called 'Sand- 
Gravel Aggregates," by Paul Klieger, November, 1948. 

ll*dZTls r 'u<< J \'<lv? d ° f '^ AmeHean C ™c™te Institute ( October, 1948); Pro- 









Bulletin 25 — "A Discussion of Cement Hydration in Relation to the Curing of Con- 
crete,'* by T. C. Powers, August, 1948. 

Reprinted from Proceedings of the Highway Research Board, 27, 178 (1947). 

Bulletin 26 — "Long-Time Study of Cement Performance in Concrete." This bulletin 
comprises four installments of the report of this investigation, by F. R. 
McMillan, I. L. Tyler, \V C, Hansen, William Lerch, C. L. Ford, and 
L. S. Brown, August, 1948. 

Reprinted from Journal of the American Concrete Institute (February-May, 1948)' 
Proceedings, 44, 441. 553. 743. 877 (1948). 

Bulletin 11 — "Determination of the Air Content of Mortars by the Pressure Method/' 

by Thomas G. Taylor, February, 1949. 

Reprinted from ASTM Bulletin, No. 155, 44 (December, 1948). 

Bulletin 28 — "A Polarographic Method for the Direct Determination of Aluminum 
Oxide in Portland Cement," by C. L. Ford and Lorrayne Le Mar, 
April, 1949. 

Reprinted from ASTM Bulletin, No. 157, 66 (Mareb. 1949). 

Bulletin 29 — "The Nonevaporable Water Content of Hardened Portland-Cement 
Paste — Its Significance for Concrete Research and Its Methods of 
Determination," by T. C. Powers, June, 1949. 

Reprinted from ASTM Bulletin, No. 158, 68 (May, 1949). 

Bulletin 30 — "Long-Time Study of Cement Performance in Concrete — Chapter 5. 
Concrete Exposed to Sulfate Soils/' by F. R. McMillan, T. E. Stanton, 

I. L. Tyler and W. C. Hansen, December, 1949. 

Reprinted from a Special Publication of tbe American Concrete Institute (1949). 

Bulletin 31 — "Studies of Some Methods of Avoiding the Expansion and Pattern 
Cracking Associated with the Alkali- Aggregate Reaction," by William 
Lerch, February, 1950. 

Reprinted from Special Technical Publication No. 99, published by American Society 

for Testing Materials (1950). 

Bulletin 32— "Long-Time Study of Cement Performance in Concrete — Chapter 6. 
The Heats of Hydration of the Cements," by George J. Verreck and 
Cecil W. Foster, October, 1949. 

Reprinted from Proceedings, American Society for Testing Materials, 50, 1235 (1950). 

Bulletin 33 — "The Air Requirement of Frost-Resistant Concrete," by T. C. Powers; 
discussion by T. F. Willis. 

Reprinted from Proceedings of the Highway Research Board, 29, 184 (1949). 

Bulletin 34 — "Aqueous Cementitious Systems Containing Lime and Alumina," 

by Harold H. Steinour, February, 1951. 

Bulletin 35— "Linear Traverse Technique for Measurement of Air in Hardened 
Concrete," by L. S. Brown and C. U. Pierson, February, 1951. 

Reprinted from Journal of the American Concrete Institute (October, 1950); Proceed- 
ings,47, 117 (1951). 

Bulletin 36— "Soniscope Tests Concrete Structures," by E. A. Whitehurst, February, 
1951. 

Reprinted from Journal of the American Concrete Institute (February, 1951); Pro- 
ceedings 47, 433 (1951). 

Bulletin 37— "Dilatometer Method for Determination of Thermal Coefficient of 
Expansion of Fine and Coarse Aggregate," by Georoe J. Verbeck and 
Werner E. Hass, September, 1951. 

Reprinted from Proceedings of Highway Research Board, 30, 187 (1951). 

Bulletin 38 — "Long-Time Study of Cement Performance in Concrete— Chapter 7. 
New York Test Road," by F. H. Jackson and I. L. Tyler, October, 1951. 

Reprintt d from Journal of the American Concrete Institute (June, 1951); Proceedings 
47, 773 (1951). 

Bulletin 39— "Changes in Characteristics of Portland Cement as Exhibited by Lab- 
oratory Tests Over the Period 1904 to 1950," by H. F. Gonnerman and 

William Lerch. 

Reprinted from Special Publication No. 127 published by American Society for Ta 
Materials 



Bulletin 40— "Studies of the Effect of Entrained Air on the Strength and Dura- 
bility of Concretes Made with Various Maximum Sizes of Aggregate " 

- LUX Ki.IEGER. 

Reprinted from Proceedings of the Highway Research Board, 31, 177 (1952). 



'Effect of Settlement of Concrete on Results of Pull-Out Bond Tests " 
kBL A. Mlxzel, November, 1952. 

'An Investigation of Bond Anchorage and Related Factors in Rein- 
forced Concrete Beams," by Carl A. Mexzel and William M. W< 
.November, 1952. 

'Ten Year Report on the Long-Time Study of Cement Performance 
in Concrete," by Advisory Committee of the Long- Time Study of Cement 
Performance m Concrete, R. F. Blanks, Chairman. 

Sl^n^SSr J<mrnal ° f the Am€rican ConcreU 

'The Reactions and Thermochemistry of Cement Hydration at Ordi- 
nary' Temperature," by Harold H. Steinoub. 

R^printed^from Third International Symposium on the Chemistry of Cement. London. 

'Investigations of the Hydration Expansion Characteristics of Portland 
Cement, by H I Gonnebman, Wu. Leech, ami Thomas M. Whitesidi 

June 

Theory of Volume Changes in Hardened Portland Cement Paste 
During Freezing," r I « Powers and K A Hei.mith. 

Reprinted from 1 <: 

•The Determination of Non-Evaporable Water in Hardened Portland 
Cement Paste, by L. E Copeland and Johk C. Bates. 

Reprinted from ASTM Bulletin No. 194. 70 1 

"The Heats of Hydration of Tricalcium Silicate and beta-Dicalcium 
Slllca,( 3 ■ B J C HAYES and W. K. Has.. 

Reprinted from The Journal of Physical CkemiM I < M 

"Void Spacing as a Basis for Producing Air-Entrained Concrete » 
r TEBfi 

■ " ' ■ ' ' Proceeding. 

Bulletin 49A Di* mionof the paper -Void Spacing as a Basis for Producing Air- 
Entrained Concrete," I I f Backstbom , H \\ Burbows V I \\ n[- 
odofi and Authoi , T. C. J ' ' L1 

rt2 L064 

Bulletin 50— "Tin M> dratea of Magnesium Perchlorate," I, I. I. CoPBLAND and R. 

II 1954 

Bulletin 51- • I), .termination of Sod.um and Potassium Oxides in Portland Cement 
K.«« Materia and Mixture* and Similar Silicates In Flame Photom- 

4<- 

Bulletin 52-"S atton in Portland Cement Pastes," l,v L I CoPELAMD and 

i 
HL1,,tImM "*" ,Vrn ' -i^nt Paste,',,, C . P .„,....■ 



Bulletin 41— 4 
Bulletin 42— ' 

Bulletin 43—* 

Bulletin 44— 

Bulletin 45— 
Bulletin 46—' 
Bulletin 47 — ■ 
Bulletin 48— 
Bulletin 49—